There Is No Suffering 113

The Realization of the Buddhas

All buddhas appearing
in the past, present, and future
rely on prajnaparamita,
and realize Perfect Enlightenment,

The buddhas appearing in the past are all the sentient beings that have become buddhas in all worlds, not just this one. Present buddhas are all the buddhas existing now in the innumerable worlds; in Buddhism, we call this the ten directions—the eight points of the compass, plus above and below. Future buddhas are all bodhisattvas, in fact, all sentient beings, who are on the path to buddhahood.

We have already explained the meaning of prajnaparamita. When you finally transcend attachment to self and all dharmas, you have realized wisdom without outflows. In the beginning of the sutra, it was a bodhisattva, Avalokitesvara, who was relying on prajnaparamita. Now, at the end of the sutra, we are referring to buddhas who, even though liberated, still practice.