Setting in Motion the Dharma Wheel 43

The Visuddimagga (The Path of Purification) by Buddhagosa (5th century C.E.) enumerates ten klesas (variously translated as 'defilements,' 'passions,' 'impurities,' 'vexations,' 'delusions): desire, hate, delusion, pride, wrong views, doubt, rigidity excitability shamelessness, and no conscience. Some analyses limit the number to the first six, regarding them as root vexations from which all other vexations derive.

The six realms (or modes) of existence are the three upper realms and three lower realms. The realm one is reborn in results from one's guiding and completion karma. The three upper realms are the human, the lower gods (asuras), and the celestial beings (devas). The three lower realms are the animal, the angry spirits (pretas), and the hell beings (naraka). The inhabitants of all six realms inhabit samsara and are therefore subject to rebirth.

'Primary mind' here refers collectively to the six sense consciousnesses, which are the six sense faculties interacting with their corresponding sense objects. The sense faculties are sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and cognition.